traditional-chinese-898567_1920Add to Technorati FavoritesMost people around the world have heard about the medicinal benefits of Chinese herbal remedies. These time tested traditional potions have maintained the one of the worlds largest and indeed greatest cultures for thousands of years. Today, few would dispute the benefits of herbal medicines in the hands of experienced and reputable practitioners.

In the advent of the computer age Chinese traditional medicine has gained a great deal of exposure through the Internet. Now there are a great many companies which sell herbal medicines over the Internet. Herbs, like all other organic substances are susceptible to all sorts of microbial infestations which can greatly compromise the quality of the plant and hence the product which you buy. Herbs infested with moulds, viruses or any of the many types of bacteria can loose most if not all of their beneficial medicinal properties and can even become dangerous to consume.

Herbs which are used in traditional Chinese medicine, like any other other cash crop are grown in fields or collected from the wild, they are then harvested, graded,cut to size,dehydrated, checked by quality control (hopefully), packed, stored in warehouses and finally shipped to the store where you buy them or sent directly to you if you buy via direct marketing routes. As you can see, plants used in traditional medicine go through many handling processes before they become the final product which you but. Every time the plant is handled, something of it’s original integrity and quality is lost. This is inevitable in any industry and each stage presents opportunities for cross contamination if the product is handled improperly. As with any product good manufacturing procedures (GMP) are an absolute necessity. Unfortunately, not all people who market traditional Chinese herbs are reputable manufacturers and great care must be taken in choosing which company to buy from.

Usually, the more high tech the facilities of a factory are, the higher product standards will be. Today, a number of Chinese companies are offering medicinal herbs in freeze dried form The advantages of freeze drying are that the raw materials used have to be of a high standard to ensure a stable end product. Secondly, freeze drying is a great way of preserving as many of the original qualities of the plant as possible. Thirdly, because freeze drying is a very quick process, there is no tome for bacterial or mould spores to form and oxidization is prevented. This means that from a food hygiene standpoint you are safeguarded against such micro organisms forming during usage. Fourthly, Freeze dried products deteriorate at a much slower rate than with other methods that are in use, among other things this means that the anti oxidizing properties of the plant(s) are preserved.

Freeze drying also permits the manufacturer to be very inventive during the manufacturing process. He can make blends that are intended to ensure that you the customer get a guaranteed strength of active ingredient and he can also blend different types of herbs to formulate products to make ready to use infusions for specific medical conditions. In addition, ingredients which make a product more palatable can also be added.

Some of these companies claim to have hundreds of blends in their product range which cover a great many medical requirements. If you intend to use traditional Chinese medicine I would strongly recommend that you investigate the possibilities offered by freeze dried technology.

bee-802592_1920Food safety issues in the honey industry cause global concern. Rapid decline in honey bee populations continues to elude experts.
The world watches in despair as the honey bee industry continues to take huge knocks. In recent weeks vast quantities of honey imported from China to the USA were stopped at US ports after checks showed that the honey contained low to moderate quantities of Chloramphenicol, an antibiotic which is not approved for ingestion.

If this were not enough, another major source of honey was deemed unfit for human consumption. This honey came from Brazil where honey bees pollinate genetically modifies soy bean and genetically modified sweet corn.

Honey is a natural product which has a great many healthy qualities. Enzymes in honey have been proved to be beneficial to the cardio vascular system and other enzymes within honey are thought to have very good properties in the healing of wounded tissue, both internally and externally. Genetically modified honey is accused of unbalancing the action of the enzymes within the honey and it is for this reason that many countries are refusing to permit the import of honey that comes from bees which have been raised on GM crops.

Five hundred million bees died in Germany when crops were sprayed with the wrong insecticide. This is a major financial blow for German agriculture and will be the subject of a public enquiry into the events and decision making processes that led up to the use of the said chemical and into new policy that will be directed at ensuring that pollinating bees will not be harmed in the future.

And still, in spite of all of these regretable instances, the population of bees in the world continues to rapidly decline. The name being given to this phenomenon is colony collapse disorder. I had occasion to interview bee keepers today into their opinion on the decline in honey bee numbers around the world and this was their response. ” In our opinion several factors contribute to the decline in the numbers of bees. One reason that we strongly suspect is the mobile phone technology. Antennas are everywhere and they emit high levels of radiation that cause some sort of disturbance in the way bees react. We have carried out some minor experiments and we know that it takes many bees a lot longer to return to the hive than in previous decades.

In addition we suspect that the usage of slow release insecticides is having a detrimental effect on bees. Slow release chemicals were developed several decades ago to lower the lethal dose (LD grading) of chemicals to lessen the effect of harmful chemicals on humans and to increase the longevity of the chemical’s effect upon the harmful insect population. We suspect that some of these slow release capsules are not becoming active within the advertised time framework and are being brought to the hive on the bodies of the bees. Furthermore we suspect that the environment within the hive contribute into making the potency of these chemicals greater than in open air scenarios.

Other industries cannot be ruled out as not putting stress on the physiology of the bee. The plastics industry, among others, has been pumping chemicals into the environment for decades. The concentrations of these chemicals has been slowly increasing over the years. Bees drink water in the environment where ever it is available. Lets say that bees find a water source that comes from a plastic hose pipe which has been manufactured in one of the Far East countries. It is no secret that plastics that are manufactured in the far east are not as chemically stable as those manufactured in the west but because of lower costs, crop irrigation and garden hoses are now supplied mostly from China and India. We think that the Estrogen mimics that are present in the water which has come into contact with these plastic products is also having an effect on bee populations. These chemicals could be appearing in the water that the bees drink and in the nectar that they collect.”

We can see from this report that bee keepers are very tuned into what is happening in the environment We also see that some of their concerns could well have effect on food safety issues, particularly in areas where GM crops are being grown and concerning the issue of estrogen mimics. However the major concern lies in the decline in bee populations worldwide. Could it be that the humble little bee will present us with the answers on what we need to do to avoid destroying ourselves as a species?

cheese-1278812_1920Food spoilage is really nothing more than a natural deterioration of organic matter. Everything in nature has to be broken down so that it can once again become part of the composition of soil. All of the various natural processes that participate in the spoilage of organic material are ultimately directed toward this aim.

Odor. Bad odor is a symptom of food spoilage. Foods that have a bad odor should be thrown out. We have already gone into the causes of foul refrigerator odor with regards the spilage of food. Yet there is another factor that we should take into consideration when talking about foul odors of food and that is that the odors can be soaked up by foods which have not spoiled and make them disagreeable to eat. In saying that, this problem does not only pertain to food which has spoiled. Nobody would like to eat a piece of cake that has adopted the odor and taste of smoked salmon, for instance. This is a major problem in the home kitchen. Luckily there are now products available that help to reduce the severity of refrigerator odor and foul taste transfer between foods. Now you can buy a refrigerator purifier that will prove invaluable in the prevention of refrigerator odor. This product is a real food saver. Small air filters for fridges are also available.

When we define food spoilage we can say that spoilage of food pertains any disagreeable change in the nature of food from the normal condition that we expect. These changes may compromise food hygiene. We are able to distinguish these changes through use of our senses. For instance, food may change visually, it may change in smell, to the touch or in taste. In saying that, we use some forms of what technically amounts to food spoilage, in a controlled way, to achieve a desired effect, as in Camembert cheese for instance. We crave the runiness of the cheese that is produced by specially selected bacteria and mould to produce an effect which many of us find pleasing to eat. Other examples of controlled food deterioration include Danish blue, Gorgonzola, Stilton and many other forms of cheese. We also tenderize meat such as game by jugging it or purposely speed up the deterioration process of meat when we inject lactbacillus bacteria into steak to mimic the ageing process. In short and in technical terms, food spoilage works for us easily as much as it works against us.

Nevertheless, food does spoil because once the fruit of vegetable has been picked or the animal has been slaughtered, the natural processes and defences of the organism are compromised and exposure to the outside environment causes a number of inevitable changes to occur.

The factors which bring about these changes include, air and oxygen, light, moisture, microbial growth factors and ambient temperature. Some of these changes indicate poor food hygiene and cross contamination and others point to chemical reactions and changes due to physical phenomina. Let’s go through the various causes.

Air and oxygen: Air comprises of about eighty percent nitrogen and about twenty percent oxygen. The level of oxygen in the air is too great for most organisms and therefore organisms have developed strategies to counter the harmful effects of oxygen. Our lungs are lined with a substance called surfactant. Surfactant provides a necessary barrier between the tissue of the lung and the oxygen in the air to counteract the caustic effect of the oxygen upon the lung tissue. Our bodies and the bodies of other organisms produce anti oxidants to counter other undesirable reactions of oxygen with substances called free radicals. By binding to free radicals, anti oxidants prevent reactions which are harmful to our bodies. When an organisms no longer has the support of it’s various physiological support systems, the chemical make up of the organism will start to react with the oxygen in the air.

Micro organisms which require the presence of oxygen in order to metabolize organic tissue, such as aerobic bacteria and moulds, are able to colonize those areas of the flesh which are exposed to the air. The will form colonies upon the food and start to metabolize the flesh of the organism and divide at a rate of one division every twenty minutes per bacterial cell. In some cases as few as one thousand bacteria can be enough to contitute a food hygiene risk.

Enzymes, particularly oxidizing enzymes, which react with oxygen also aid the process of food spoilage. In vegetables enzymes such as catase and peroxidase cause the familiar browning of the flesh of foods such as apples and potatoes. Enzymes are substances which speed up chemical reactions and enzymatic reaction with oxygen in organic matter causes the degeneration of the matter to hasten considerably. In cooking a rapid heat treatment known as blanching is used to cancel these enzymatic reactions. Enzymatic changes do not usually render food inedible but if combined with microbial infestation such as mould or certain bacteria the ingestion of such spoiled food would constitute a food hygiene risk.

Water: water is the most abundant substance in nature. All organisms are made up of at least seventy percent water. The water within an organism when it is alive is termed as bound water because it is chemically connected to other substances within the body. All living organisms maintain a certain level of chemical concentration. This is said to mimic the concentration of sea water from which all living organisms originate. Concentrated fluids flow around the cells and each cell contains within it a carefully controlled liquid environment. The balance between the concentration of the fluids which flow around the cell and the fluid which exists within the cell is carefully regulated by the central control system of the organism, whether it be plant or animal. In higher organisms this process is called homeostasis.

Once a plant or an animal has been cut into smaller parts, the tissues whose fluid environment was once carefully controlled are now exposed to the environment. When the organism’s flesh comes into contact with moisture a physical phenomenon occurs. All substances in nature try to match their concentration levels to other substances around them, This is called diffusion. The flesh of an organism, when exposed to water will soak up the water in an attempt to dilute the concentration levels within the flesh of the organism to the concentration levels around it. This may cause the cells of the organism to explode by being too full of water. This form of tissue deterioration is a major cause of food spoilage. This intake of moisture into the tissue of the food source is the perfect vector for micro organisms to infest it. This is a very good example of how food spoilage occurs and food hygiene breakdowns happen.

In addition, excess “free” water within or around the cell gives bacteria the perfect medium in which to operate. In bacterial terms this is like a super highway in which bacteria are able to spread throughout the flesh of an organism. Water within an organism can be controlled by a) dehydration, b) freezing or c by the addition of food preservatives.

Light: Spoilage of food which is caused by light is called photo degeneration. All food is exposed to light at some time or another. Light can be either natural light or artificial light. Light, like all other forms of energy is made up of different wave lenghts. At the outer ends of the light spectrum we have infra red and ultra violet light which can vary in intensity in different parts of the world. These forms of light radiation are known to be harmful and can cause dead and live tissue to react in negative ways.

Exposure to light sources can cause foods to change in nature. Pigments may change, as may vitamin levels, fats and proteins. In solid foods the density of the material such as in meat may block deep penetration of light and therefore the effects of light may only cause changes to happen on the surface of the product. In liquids light penetration can be much deeper and therefore the effects of photo degeneration can be much more substantial.

Microbial growth. Micro organisms play a vital role in the balance of nature. Bacteria and other types of microbes haves each evolved to fill a specific niche. Some bacteria have developed a symbiotic relationship relationship with living organisms and some have developed a parasitical relationship. Healthy organisms manage to keep parasitical bacteria at bay through their immune systems and homeostasis. However, parasitical bacteria are constantly on the look out for signs of weakness and it is their job to bring about the rapid demise of sick organisms and to ensure that they are re cycled back into the environment through the process of tissue deterioration and degeneration. In prehistoric times man did not store much food. He ate from hand to mouth and so food did not have much time to go off. Modern man, because of his lifestyle, needs to store food and to do this he needs to effect a different kind of environmental control in comparison to prehistoric man.

In a previous chapter I mentioned that psicrophilic bacteria can cause food spoilage at low temperatures. In cold climates landscapes freeze for many months and animals find it difficult to survive. Weaker animals die during the winter months and remain frozen until the beginning of the thaw in spring. Although thawed a carcass may remain too cold for many types of bacteria to develop and it is for this reason that certain bacteria adapted to this niche so that the detioration of the carcass could begin. This process helps to ensure that the period of time during which more pathogenic bacteria infest the carcass and hence spread into the environment is considerably lessened. This is the function and importance of psicrophilic bacteria in nature. We can control the undesirable effects of psicrophilic bacteria in our cold stores through the implementation of a good hygiene regime.

In general, sources of food contamination come from the environment particularly from, animal wastes, soil, water and air. Here the “Four stages of food hygiene” come into play. Great care must be taken to make sure that food comes from safe sources, that food does not come into contact with other bacterial sources, that bacteria does not have conditions for growth and that tools and work surfaces are kept free from bacteria. food hygiene regime and temperature is all critical here. Don’t make mistakes or cut corners and bacteria will not develop.

Temperature. Temperature is probably the single most important environment which we can control to prevent the spoilage of food. Temperature regulates several changes in the nature of organic matter. Firstly it slows down chemical reactions within the food. Secondly it can prevent the ggrowth development of bacteria or destroy bacteria through cooking, Temperature regulation can control the destruction of vitamins and prevent dehydration and ripening of food.

However, temperature need to be professionally controlled. Over freezing can cause surfaces to crack of the development of ice crystals at microscopic levels can puncture cells causing the flesh to become soft and pulpy. Pigment can be lost and chemicals within the food may react and loose much of their nutritious value. This process is commonly called freezer burning.

In cold stores vegetables and fruit are best held at temperatures of around 10 degrees Celsius. meats should be chilled to four degrees Celsius and frozen food should be stored at -18 degrees Celsius for a period not exceeding six months in most cases. Aaways make sure that you follow manufacturers storage instructions. If in doubt don’t be afraid to contact the manufacturer or importer to get their advise.

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Beriberi is a disease which is cause by the lack of vitamin B1 or thiamine. The disease is very common in areas in which the inhabitants are suffering from advances malnutrition due to famine or in areas where the diet mostly consists of pure carbohydrates such as white rice and cassava. This disease was particularly prevalent in the last century in Asia due to the reliance on white rice to make up the bulk of the diet. The typical distended stomach of children in famine regions or in regions where white rice makes up more than eighty percent of the diet is due to thiamine difiency.

Although beriberi is not a true food hygiene issue I have decided to talk about it because it does have direct relevance to certain food safety issues.

Executives of the Similac baby food corporation in Israel were taken to court for selling infant milk formula which was lacking vitamin B1 (thiamine). Due to the rarity of the disease in Israel doctors were baffled by the symptoms that the children displayed. the disease was eventually diagnosed by an intern who remembered seeing the symptoms during a section of her studies which she conducted outside of Israel. Once diagnosed the infants were given Thiamine Hydrochloride which helped most of the effected infants to recover within the period a few hours. Some infants died before and shortly after the error was diagnosed and some suffer from severe neurological disorders including partial paralysis.

The executives responsible for the distribution were prosecuted for criminal negligence in the Israeli courts. The Israeli prosecutors office claimed that the executives had prior knowledge to the fact the formula which they buy from Germany was devoid of thiamine. The case continues.

Vitamin B1 is found in a wide range of foodstuffs but particularly in whole grain bread, eggs, cereals, whole grain rice, meat, yeast, fruit, green vegetables and legumes. Lack of vitamin B1 can cause high levels of lactic acid and pyruvic acid to develop in the blood due to the fact that lack of the vitamin interferes with the aerobic metabolism of glucose by interfering with the breakdown of glucose molecules, causing the body to function on an anaerobic pathway.

Indications of beriberi include fatigue, lethargy and complications of the disease effect the nervous, muscular, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. the milk of a mother who has thiamine deficiency often causes the child to suffer from the deficiency as well. Beriberi can also be found in chronic alcoholics ans sometimes in patients who have undergone gastric bypass.

Symptoms of the disease include severe weight loss, fatigue, emotional disturbances and sensory perception, weakness and pain in the limbs, edema (swelling of body tissues) and irregular heart rate. When cases reach the advanced stage heart failure and death are not uncommon.

Beriberi causes wasting of peripheral tissues and nerves which leads to partial paralysis. It can also leas to a lack of sensation in the skin tissues. Beriberi can be cured by giving the patient a thiamine rich diet but the return to functionality will be much slower than by administering thiamine via injection.

The likelihood of seeing beriberi in the western world is very slim but if you are feeding your baby on milk formula it is worth knowing something about the symptoms of this condition to prevent the terrible tragedy that happened in Israel from happening again.

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Cholera is a disease of the human digestive system and it is passed from person to person through the drinking if infected water or eating food infected with the cholera bacteria. Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio Cholerae which is a comma shaped gram negative bacteria.

Cholera is usually contracted when the feces of an infected person or persons comes into contact with food or a water supply but cholera has been know to exist in non feces infected brackish water. However cholera has also been know to be contracted by eating raw shellfish which can be infected with cholera. Some coastal areas including the Gulf of Mexico, the west African Coast, The east African Coastline, parts of the Brazilian coastline and parts of the South China Sea coastlines are renowned for having cholera infected shellfish. It is suspected that the pumping of raw sewage into the sea is responsible for this phenomenon.

Cholera is very common in areas which have poor treatment of sewage and drinking water. Many cases of cholera infection are very mild but other instances may be very severe. The disease is caused when the bacteria produce cholera toxin which inserts itself into the cell walls of the cells which line the small intestine. It acts as a very efficient chemical water pump which draws vast amounts of water into the lumen of the small intestine.

The bacterial infection which causes cholera is not very dangerous in itself on condition that the symptoms of the disease are well managed. It is the symptoms which present the danger. Persons infected with cholera have been know to be seriously dehydrated within one hour from the onset of diarrhoea, can go into shock within three hours and can die from severe dehydration in the space of twelve hour if they do not receive proper medical attention.

If properly managed the body can wash the disease out in the space of a few days. the main problem with cholera is re infection. If there is no clean water or uncontaminated food to be had the cycle continues. The main impact of cholera is on the elderly, the very young and people who may already be weakened by malnutrition or another disease. The main treatment which is now used to combat this disease is oral re hydration therapy. Re hydration should be started as soon as possible. In very severe cases a drip may be needed in addition to oral re hydration therapy. Medical staff who are used to treating this disease and in using this technique have saved many millions of lives especially in the developing world.

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How many times have your workers phoned in to you and said “boss, I got a virus. I can’t get off the toilet”? During the summer months especially it seems as though somebody is taken ill by a virus every week.

I usually asked them to bring me a doctors note and let it at that. Force major, what can you do? It seemed like I was the only one who never got sick. Could it be that responsibility is the best prophylactic medicine around? I always added “come straight in as soon as you feel well. Even though I knew that this was not the best thing to do. Soon you’ll understand why even if this statement confuses you right now.

The doctor usually always tells you the same thing. “yes you’ve caught that virus that’s been going around. Take something to reduce the fever, stay in bed for three days and drink plenty of water”. We all know that a virus is a variety micro organism that has the ability to infect us with several types of very unpleasant types of illness. The most common of these are upper respiratory tract infections and stomach infections. Other viruses which are less common in the western world due to attention to public hygiene issues include pneumonia, viral meningitis, viral pneumonia, hepatitis A, B and C, polio, several forms of zoonotic encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue fever, western Nile fever, rift valley fever, ebola disease, colorado tick fever, machupo, junin, rabies, small pox, various forms of cancer causing viruses and HIV to name but a few. All of these are very serious life threatening illnesses. Some viruses produce conditions which are considered mildly uncomfortable such as mouth ulcers, foot and mouth disease, cow pox and common warts, to mention just a few. There is a whole other range of diseases that are termed as childhood diseases which are also of viral origin. These viral conditions include measels, german measels chicken pox, mumps, and whooping cough. Some of these are included in inoculations against the contraction of dangerous disease during childhood and some are left to the course of nature. Viruses also impact animals and plant species with often serious financial impact. Dog parvo virus is the most resilient of all viruses.

Scientists were divided in their opinion on whether it was correct to classify viruses as living organisms because they have no metabolic function as such. Viruses in simplistic terms are made up of a proteinous outer shell, proteinous genome material, enzymes and sometimes lipopolysaccharide (fatty) outer structures . All viruses are host specific but are not only host specific but are parasitical only to specific organs of the host. Rabies virus travels only along the tissue of the nervous system and will not attack the cells lining the intestine or the blood tissues. The virus that causes the common cold will not cause hepatitis and so on.

The following clip explains the path of avian flue infection. Remember that although viruses all have slightly different ways of getting into and out of living host cells the bottom line is that they all have the same objective and basically do the same thing.

All viruses enter the body via a vector. That vector could be organic material contaminated with feces, it could be via infected water or it could be introduced into a recipient body by body fluids such as saliva or sperm or it can be transferred via mosquitos or ticks. A virus is a really just a mechanism for replicating itself and it does this in the following manner. All viral invaders must breach the cell wall of the host cell and empty the contents of the viral body into the host cell. After doing this the virus activates its genetic material, each in it’s own way, to insert DNA or RNA into the DNA or RNA of the recipient which it then uses as a template to manufacture duplicate strings of DNA. The strings of DNA are then used to transcribe a code for the production of proteins which will be used to manufacture duplicate viruses within the recipient cell.

The recipient cell will cease to function as a useful cell of the body which may or may not stimulate an immunological response by the organism. When the cell wall has swollen to proportions it can no longer tolerate it will burst and the newly manufactured viruses within will flood into the organism and infect more cells. The condition in which the body is swamped with these newly released viruses is known as viremia. During the period in which the virus is initially infecting the body there is usually no immunological response. This is due to the fact that all the process is being carried out within the cell and the immune response of the body is slow to pick up on this in the initial stages because viruses can go undetected by immune cells if they have undergone some form of mutation which makes them apperar differnt to the imunological memory cells.

When the body starts to be flooded with newly developed viruses the immune response will be triggered and the host and symptoms will appear. The period of time between infection and the manifestation of symptoms can be anything between several hours in some cases to several years in the case of some retro viruses such as the HIV virus. Some viruses will insert their DNA into the DNA structure of the host and encode it to remain dormant. All of us have a certain percentage of dormant viral DNA mixed in with our own DNA. This is termed as Junk DNA. Only under very special conditions will this DNA be activate to begin the manufacture of replica viruses.

Viruses that infect the small intestine typically target the epithelial cells which coat the villi. When this happens the affected areas of the intestine will cease to absorb nutrients from the food. The food will remain in liquid form to which the liquid content of the cells is added on rupturing. In addition more liquid from the non specific immune system is added and the food is evacuated as what we recognize as diarrhea. Viral intestinal disorders can be accompanied with vomiting, nausea, headache and increased temperature. All of these symptoms are part of the bodies strategy to clear itself of the viral invader.

The swelling of the cell wall and its bursting under the pressure of the newly developed virus within is known as Lysis. Lysis is the destruction of the cell due to internal causes. During this process ulcerated and painful lesions may be formed in infected tissue. When these burst the viruses are released into the blood stream causing viremia. This destruction of cellular tissue can be accompanies by the presence of blood in stools. Loss of blood in stools is a case for medical supervision because the amount of blood lost may well have to be replaced by blood transfusion.

Viral infections of the intestine can last anything from a day to several weeks and vary in intensity. A long lasting infection may be severe of mild. It all depends on the virus in question and if the bodies defenses have any memory of this virus or viruses with similar protein structures on the outer wall. Some short lived infections can be extremely unpleasant and in contrast they can be very mild. There are no set rules. Viruses change the structure of their cell walls through mutations. This is part of the evolutionary success of viruses. The sheer numbers by which they replicate themselves leaves every statistical possibility for viral mutations to occur.

This video of the production of the HIV Retro Virus is a good animation of how viruses use host cells to transcribe the proteins that they need to reproduce themselves. In oter types of virus the process is simpler but basically the same.

The only sure way to protect yourself against entero viruses is to maintain a good personal hygiene regime in the home and at work and to buy food from a safe reliable source and to make sure that you have a safe water supply..

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Below you will find the link for an article which to my mind is of tremendous importance in the food hygiene world. Recent pioneering research has shown bacterial defence mechanisms at the disposal of the bacterium Salmonella Enterica which consufe the body’s defence mechanisms and causes them to recognize the bacterium as part of the “self”. These mechanisms have eluded scientists until now.

This gripping article raises many new questions. Is this a quality that the bacterium always had but remained undiscovered? Is it a new defence strategy that the bacterium has produced? Will there be new implications to the capability of this bacerium and is this the first of a new string of virulent bacterial qualities with which scientists will have to contend? Read the article by following the link below:

Article on Salmonella Enterica from Yale University

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Have you ever seen a strawberry that looks bright red and mushy? Although it doesn’t look mouldy or rotten it is clear that the strawberry has come to the end of it’s useful life. Is the strawberry bad to eat? Personally, I think that strawberries at this stage are at the height of their flavor, in the initial stages of this softening process they are incredibly sweet but as bacterial activity sets in the sweetness will turn into sourness which will eventually turn into bitterness.

Notice the order in which the fruits decay. It’s interesting to see which fruits last longest. The longer the fruit lasts, the greater it’s anti-oxidizing qualities.

If they have not gone mouldy or rotten I have no problem eating as many as I can. Others might find this revolting and think that food at this stage of decay should only be used for cooking purposes and then only if you are one hundred percent sure that the fruit has not been in conditions where bacterial contamination can occur. In order to understand why I have no problem eating such a strawberry one needs to know a little about the physiology of the cells of all living things, plant or animal.

As a living organism, such as a piece of fruit, begins to age, nature has designed mechanisms that help it to disintegrate and turn into what basically boils down to compost at a faster rate than if the fruit were to be disintegrate through micro-organismic activity alone. This mechanism of self destruction is called “lysis”.

The reason for this is so that the contents of the fruit (or animal) and micro-organisms effect the environment in as minimal a way as possible. It also facilitates the process in which the seed takes root and continues a new generation of the plant species.

All living organisms have several defense mechanisms, some specific and some non specific. Specific defence mechanisms know how to neutralize a pre memorized target such as a specific bacterial species or viral species. This is done through a process of protein recognition. All cellular structures in nature contain elements of protein. Each species has designed and employed it’s own unique protein structures and it is for this reason that specific defense systems can be set up by living organisms.

Specific defense mechanisms can take several days to be set into motion and it is for this reason that organisms need non specific defense mechanisms. Non specific defense mechanisms play a dual role. Firstly they make a dent in the pathogen’s attack by managing to kill a significant number of invader cells, hopefully. Secondly, the non specific defence system destroys the invader and by dispersing the bacterial cell debris rondomly they make the job of indentifying the attacker easier for the specific defense mechanism.

The bodie’s non specific defence mechanisms come in several forms. Some are cellular. This means that some are forms of white blood cells (in the animal kingdom) which travel around in the intra cellular fluids. Should they become atached to a cell which it recognizes as problomatic by virtue of being “non self”, if will kill it.

Some none specific defense mechanisms are not cellular but exist as fluid filled cysts within the organisms cells. These fluids are called complement chemicals. Complements comprise some of the most destructive chemical compounds known to nature.

One such chemical os called “lysozyme”. The lysozyme is contained within a cyst that exists within all healthy cells and this cyst is called a “lyzozome”. Some non specific defender cells will engulf an invader, taking it into its own body cavity. Lyzozomes will attach themselves to the foreign body and empty the contents of the cyst into the invader. The lyzozyme oxydizes the invader and kills it. This process is happening all of the time in every living organism.

When an organism ages as the metabolic exchange of chemical nutrients slows, cell walls begin to rupture. The contents of the cell spill into the cellular structure of the organism. Lysozyme is now floating freely around other cells. The lyzozyme oxydizes the walls of the cells it comes into contact with and causes them to rupture as well. Thus, a tissue deterioration process has initiated. The organism’s tissues will become mush and micro-organisms will work in conjunction with this process to bring about the re-incorporation of the organism with the soil. This process is often called enzymatic wastage of tissue.

This process can initiate whether a fruit is still attached to the tree or not and in animals, during old age. It is a natural and unavoidable process. It is part of the recycling method of nature.

Food that has reached this stage of development should neither be bought nor used. Although this stage does not in itself signal bacterial infestation, infestation by bacteria and/or moulds is imminant and should always be considered a presupposed fact when preparing food for others.

Note: a similar process can occur by freezing. Water within frozen foods crystalizes. The crystals puncture cell walls and the fruit becomes mushy. Once thawed fruit in this condition must be cooked as soon as possible to prevent further enzymatic detrioration or bacterial contamination.

© 2019 Food Hygiene Essentials